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The mechanism of tornado and source of energy of tornado

  TITLE: Dynamics and thermodynamics of tornado: Rotation effects
 AUTHOR: Ben-Amots, N.
 SOURCE: Atmospheric Research, v. 178-179, pp. 320-328 (1st September 2016)
 Link to fulltext:

 ABSTRACT: This paper investigates the relevant processes in the tornado including the dynamics of rotation and thermodynamics as well as condensation. The main novelty of this paper is the explanation of the phenomena occurring in the central downflow. The reduced pressure in the tornado's funnel sucks air and water vapor from the cloud above the tornado. The latent heat of condensation is released in the funnel. The centrifugal force drives the generated water drops out of the funnel. The latent heat of condensation released is also transferred out of the funnel, and supplies the helically ascending air flow surrounding the tornado with additional buoyancy energy. This process gives the tornado increased strength compared to the dust devil type of flow, thus explaining why tornadoes occur always under a cloud, and why the tornado pipe can reach a height of a kilometer and more. To sustain a tornado, the temperature of water vapor at the cloud's base should be higher than the surroundings by a certain minimal value. Remote infrared temperature measurements of clouds' bases may provide indications of the probability that a cloud can spawn a tornado, which may increase the lead time.
 KEYWORDS: Mechanism of the tornado; Energy source of the tornado; Rotation of a tornado; Dynamics of a tornado; Heat transfer; Latent heat.

Link to fulltext
Link to fulltext
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"The author contributed a potentially better understanding of the rotation effects on the dynamics and thermodynamics of a tornado." Anonymous reviewer

"I found it very interesting and enlightening." K.P. (Researcher of waterspouts, Greece)

"The effects of rotational dynamics and thermodynamics of tornado are considered in detail in Ref. 3 [Ben-Amots]." In citation in AIP advances, 2018.

"In this paper, the conceptual model with additional consideration of downflow and motions of droplets by Ben-Amots (2016) is presented to briefly introduce the general structure of tornadoes." In citation in Tao et al., Wind and structure, 2019.

 Cited by:

Pandey, S.M., Maurya, J.P.
"Exploration of characteristics governing dynamics of whirlwinds: application to dust devils,"
Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung A
Journal of Physical Sciences A

Cao, Z.X, Wang, M., Wang, Y.,
"Numerical study on pollutant removal on a new type of vortex exhaust system,"
Building Environment & Energy
pp. 114-117
(In Chinese)

Mylonas, M.P., Nastos, P.T., Matsangouras, I.T.,
"PBL parameterization schemes sensitivity analysis on WRF modeling of a tornadic event environment in Skala Lakonia in September 2015,"
Atmospheric Research

Elsaesser, D., Fedorowicz, K., Utyuzhnikov, S.,
"Towards the development of ..."
AIP Advances, v. 8, 125016, p. 2,

Tao, T., Wang, H., Yao, C., Zou, Z., Xu, Z.,
"Performance of structures and infrastructures facilities during an EF4 tornado in Yancheng,"
Wind and Structure
v. 27, No. 2, pp. 137-147 September
See page 139

Ji Qiang,
"A proposal to fight tornadoes with multiple connected balloons,"
(Feb. 2020)

Dai, Yuche,
”A Study on swirling plume enhanced natural draft dry cooling towers,”
Ph.D. thesis, Univ. of Queensland, Australia

Jebari, J.D.,
”Moral structures: Scientific reflections on rationalist themes,”
Ph.D. thesis, Georgetown Univ., Washington, D.C., U.S.A.

  Cited by
Yumeng Zhang, Yanlei Wang, Pengfei Lv, Bo Wang,
Experimental investigation on the influence of swirl ratio on tornado-like flow fields by varying updraft radius and inflow angle,
Research Square,
August 18th, (2022)

  Cited by
Pengfei Lv, Yumeng Zhang, Yanlei Wang, Bo Wang,
Experimental investigation on the influence of swirl ratio on tornado-like flow fields by varying updraft radius and inflow angle,
Atmosphere, v. 14, No. 9
September (2023)

  Cited by
Yanbin Yu, Lianxin Fang, Wenting Cui, Weimin Cheng, Yongtao Chen,
Characteristics of columnar vortex airflow and dust escape prevention based on artificial tornado
Powder Technology, V. 436, 119502
1 March (2024)

 AUTHOR'S COMMENTS (not included in the paper):
For many experts it is difficult to understand why humid air outside the funnel of the tornado cannot go inside the funnel. This is why the humid air in the funnel is supplied only from the cloud above the tornado. For the few experts who understood, it was difficult to understand that at the same time water droplets inside the funnel are expelled outside the funnel. This is why there is no rain inside the funnel. Without understanding these two points, the mechanism of the tornado cannot be explained. However, a ballet dancer understands this easily. Alyssa from the U.S.A. with 19 years of ballet experience understood this easily, as well as 9 year old Mika after one year in ballet class.

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